Information Gathering

Passive Information Gathering & OSINT

  • These techniques refer to gaining information from publicly available sources

  • By doing so, the attacker gains information about the target, without any type of active scanning

  • This ensures that the target will never be aware that we are obtaining information about it, since there is no form of direct interaction

External Resources:


Google Dorks

Google can be a powerful tool for penetration testing and bug-bounty hunting. Google's crawling capabilities can help us find exposed files, scripts and other critical resources in web applications.

This blogpost can be useful if you need to learn more about google dorks.

You can also refer to the following:

Generic Queries

site:*.target.com intext:uncaught

site:*.target.com intext:error

site:*.target.com intext:parameter

site:*.target.com intext:missing

site:*.target.com intext:"stack trace"

site:*.target.com intext:php

site:*.target.com intext:jsp

site:*.target.com intext:asp

site:*.target.com intext:include_path

site:*.target.com intext:undefined

site:*.target.com intext:sql

site:*.target.com intext:invalid

site:*.target.com intext:exception

site:*.target.com intext:fatal

site:*.target.com intext:CONFIG

site:*.target.com intext:login

site:*.target.com intitle:"index of"

site:*.target.com inurl:prod

site:*.target.com inurl:&

site:*.target.com inurl:dev

site:*.target.com inurl:staging

site:*.target.com inurl:stg

site:*.target.com inurl:debug

site:*.target.com inurl:admin

site:*.target.com inurl:internal

Apache Services

site:*.target.com intitle:"apache tomcat/"

site:*.target.com "Apache Tomcat examples"

site:*.target.com intext:"apache"

site:*.target.com intitle:"Solr Admin"

site:*.target.com intext:"This is the default welcome page used to test the correct operation of the Apache2 server"

site:*.target.com intitle:"index of" "powered by apache "

site:*.target.com intext:"Apache server status for"

site:*.target.com intitle:"Apache2 Ubuntu Default Page: It works"

site:*.target.com intitle:"WAMPSERVER homepage" "Server Configuration" "Apache Version"

site:*.target.com intitle:"Test Page for the Apache HTTP Server"

Files

site:*.target.com ext:txt

site:*.target.com ext:php

site:*.target.com ext:php5

site:*.target.com ext:phtml

site:*.target.com ext:xhtml

site:*.target.com ext:key

site:*.target.com ext:pem

site:*.target.com ext:ovpn

site:*.target.com ext:log

site:*.target.com ext:asp

site:*.target.com ext:aspx

site:*.target.com ext:jsp

site:*.target.com ext:dat

site:*.target.com ext:ovpn

site:*.target.com ext:yml

site:*.target.com ext:bak

site:*.target.com ext:zip

site:*.target.com ext:yaml

site:*.target.com ext:json

site:*.target.com ext:xml

site:*.target.com ext:env

site:*.target.com ext:conf

site:*.target.com ext:ini

site:*.target.com ext:cfg

site:*.target.com ext:cgi

site:*.target.com ext:ccm

site:*.target.com ext:sql

site:*.target.com ext:cdx

site:*.target.com ext:ics

GraphQL queries

site:*.target.com intext:"GRAPHQL_PARSE_FAILED"

site:*.target.com intext:"GRAPHQL_VALIDATION_FAILED"

site:*.target.com intext:"BAD_USER_INPUT"

site:*.target.com intext:"UNAUTHENTICATED"

site:*.target.com intext:"FORBIDDEN"

site:*.target.com intext:"PERSISTED_QUERY_NOT_FOUND"

site:*.target.com intext:"PERSISTED_QUERY_NOT_SUPPORTED"

site:*.target.com intext:"INTERNAL_SERVER_ERROR"


Domain Information using Crt.sh & Shodan

  1. Output and Download JSON: curl -s https://crt.sh/\?q\=test.com\&output\=json | jq .

  2. Filter JSON by subdomains: curl -s https://crt.sh/\?q\=test.com\&output\=json | jq . | grep name | cut -d":" -f2 | grep -v "CN=" | cut -d'"' -f2 | awk '{gsub(/\\n/,"\n");}1;' | sort -u

  3. Make an ip-address wordlist: for i in $(cat subdomainlist);do host $i | grep "has address" | grep [test.com](http://test.com/) | cut -d" " -f4 >> ip-addresses.txt;done

  4. Run shodan on those ip addresses: for i in $(cat ip-addresses.txt);do shodan host $i;done


Passive Domain Enumeration

Resource/CommandDescription

VirusTotal

https://www.virustotal.com/gui/home/url

Censys

https://censys.io/

Crt.sh

https://crt.sh/

curl -s https://sonar.omnisint.io/subdomains/{domain} | jq -r '.[]' | sort -u

All subdomains for a given domain.

curl -s https://sonar.omnisint.io/tlds/{domain} | jq -r '.[]' | sort -u

All TLDs found for a given domain.

curl -s https://sonar.omnisint.io/all/{domain} | jq -r '.[]' | sort -u

All results across all TLDs for a given domain.

curl -s https://sonar.omnisint.io/reverse/{ip} | jq -r '.[]' | sort -u

Reverse DNS lookup on IP address.

curl -s https://sonar.omnisint.io/reverse/{ip}/{mask} | jq -r '.[]' | sort -u

Reverse DNS lookup of a CIDR range.

curl -s "https://crt.sh/?q=${TARGET}&output=json" | jq -r '.[] | "(.name_value)\n(.common_name)"' | sort -u

Certificate Transparency.

cat sources.txt | while read source; do theHarvester -d "${TARGET}" -b $source -f "${source}-${TARGET}";done

Searching for subdomains and other information on the sources provided in the source.txt list.

https://searchdns.netcraft.com/

Search public information about a hostname using netcraft


Passive Infrastructure Identification

Resource/CommandDescription

Netcraft

https://www.netcraft.com/

WayBackMachine

http://web.archive.org/

WayBackURLs

https://github.com/tomnomnom/waybackurls

waybackurls -dates https://$TARGET > waybackurls.txt

Crawling URLs from a domain with the date it was obtained.


Active Information Gathering

  • By using active scans against the target, we can gain more (reliable) information about it

  • Whenever we are executing external scans, nmap and many other different tools can help us gain a lay of the land of the target surface


Protocols and Services Footprinting with NMAP

  • Scanning a target with nmap may reveal services, open ports, service versions, operating system and so on

  • After gaining a lay of the land of the protocols and services granted by the target, refer to the Protocols and Services Notes for more information


NMAP Scanning Options

Nmap OptionDescription

10.10.10.0/24

Target network range.

-sn

Disables port scanning.

-Pn

Disables ICMP Echo Requests

-n

Disables DNS Resolution.

-PE

Performs the ping scan by using ICMP Echo Requests against the target.

--packet-trace

Shows all packets sent and received.

--reason

Displays the reason for a specific result.

--disable-arp-ping

Disables ARP Ping Requests.

--top-ports=<num>

Scans the specified top ports that have been defined as most frequent.

-p-

Scan all ports.

-p22-110

Scan all ports between 22 and 110.

-p22,25

Scans only the specified ports 22 and 25.

-F

Scans top 100 ports.

-sS

Performs an TCP SYN-Scan.

-sA

Performs an TCP ACK-Scan. Note: best for firewall and ids/ips evasion

-sU

Performs an UDP Scan.

-sV

Scans the discovered services for their versions.

-sC

Perform a Script Scan with scripts that are categorized as "default".

-sL

List Scan - simply list targets to scan - useful to understand which targets are reachable

--script <script>

Performs a Script Scan by using the specified scripts.

-O

Performs an OS Detection Scan to determine the OS of the target.

-A

Performs OS Detection, Service Detection, and traceroute scans.

-D RND:5

Sets the number of random Decoys that will be used to scan the target. Note: useful for firewall and ids/ips evasion

-e

Specifies the network interface that is used for the scan.

-S 10.10.10.200

Specifies the source IP address for the scan.

-g

Specifies the source port for the scan.

--dns-server <ns>

DNS resolution is performed by using a specified name server.


NMAP Output Options

Nmap OptionDescription

-oA filename

Stores the results in all available formats starting with the name of "filename".

-oN filename

Stores the results in normal format with the name "filename".

-oG filename

Stores the results in "grepable" format with the name of "filename".

-oX filename

Stores the results in XML format with the name of "filename".


NMAP Performance Options

Nmap OptionDescription

--max-retries <num>

Sets the number of retries for scans of specific ports.

--stats-every=5s

Displays scan's status every 5 seconds.

-v/-vv

Displays verbose output during the scan.

--initial-rtt-timeout 50ms

Sets the specified time value as initial RTT timeout.

--max-rtt-timeout 100ms

Sets the specified time value as maximum RTT timeout.

--min-rate 300

Sets the number of packets that will be sent simultaneously.

-T <0-5>

Specifies the specific timing template. [0=paranoid, 5=insane]


Vhosts, Subdomain and Web Content Fuzzing

  • Fuzz testing or Fuzzing is a Black Box software testing technique, which basically consists in finding implementation bugs using malformed/semi-malformed data injection in an automated fashion.

  • Fuzzing techniques can also be used to discover vhosts, subdomains and web content

  • Refer to the Fuzzing Notes for more information


Active Infrastructure Identification

Resource/CommandDescription

curl -I "http://${TARGET}"

Display HTTP headers of the target webserver.

whatweb -a https://www.facebook.com -v

Technology identification.

Wappalyzer

https://www.wappalyzer.com/

wafw00f -v https://$TARGET

WAF Fingerprinting.

Aquatone

https://github.com/michenriksen/aquatone

cat subdomain.list | aquatone -out ./aquatone -screenshot-timeout 1000

Makes screenshots of all subdomains in the subdomain.list.


Active Subdomain Enumeration

Resource/CommandDescription

HackerTarget

https://hackertarget.com/zone-transfer/

SecLists

https://github.com/danielmiessler/SecLists

nslookup -type=any -query=AXFR $TARGET nameserver.target.domain

Zone Transfer using Nslookup against the target domain and its nameserver.

gobuster dns -q -r "${NS}" -d "${TARGET}" -w "${WORDLIST}" -p ./patterns.txt -o "gobuster_${TARGET}.txt"

Bruteforcing subdomains.

dnsrecon -d example.com -D subdomainwordlist.txt -t brt

Subdomain bruteforcing using dnsrecon

dnsenum example.com

Automated enumeration using dnsenum

DNS Enumeration

CommandDescription

nslookup $TARGET

Identify the A record for the target domain.

nslookup -query=A $TARGET

Identify the A record for the target domain.

dig $TARGET @<nameserver/IP>

Identify the A record for the target domain.

dig a $TARGET @<nameserver/IP>

Identify the A record for the target domain.

nslookup -query=PTR

Identify the PTR record for the target IP address.

dig -x @<nameserver/IP>

Identify the PTR record for the target IP address.

nslookup -query=ANY $TARGET

Identify ANY records for the target domain.

dig any $TARGET @<nameserver/IP>

Identify ANY records for the target domain.

nslookup -query=TXT $TARGET

Identify the TXT records for the target domain.

dig txt $TARGET @<nameserver/IP>

Identify the TXT records for the target domain.

nslookup -query=MX $TARGET

Identify the MX records for the target domain.

dig mx $TARGET @<nameserver/IP>

Identify the MX records for the target domain.

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